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Iceland: Volcanic Eruption Causes & Top 5 Volcanic Eruptions

Volcano Eruption in Iceland/Image: Getty

Earthquakes and volcano eruption has been random event in Iceland. However, after several months of continuous tiny quakes, the volcanic eruptions have surged up and it's roaring on the land of Reykjanes Peninsula. Moreover, the unpopulated area of Geldingadalur has broken the barrier of ''No volcanic eruptions'' after 900 years.

There are over 130 volcanoes in Iceland.  Which have been erupting regularly for several years. But why there are plenty of volcanoes in Iceland?

Iceland is a country consisting of Mid-Atlantic mountains and mountains near the Atlantic Ocean. These mountains and hills separate the tectonic plates of North America and Euro-Asia. This is the reason why Iceland is located much above sea level. 

The two tectonic plates (North America and Euro-Asia) continue to separate from each other, causing the crustal rocks to fall out of the space between them. And that's why Iceland's volcano has been born and erupts regularly.

These volcanoes also have different names, which scientists have determined by reviewing their feature size and history. 

Let's see the top 5 volcano eruption locations in Iceland.


(Eyjafjallajökull) Yaf-Jokutal Volcano

This volcano caused the largest eruption in 2010, forcing many European flights to be canceled by Iceland airport authorities. Due to this it is most popular among tourists. 

According to scientist, its last eruption prior to the last volcanic eruption in 2010 was from 1821 to 1823.

This volcano is associated with another Icelandic volcano called, Katla. Due to this, when the Yaf-Jokutal volcano erupts, the Katla volcano awaits its next eruption. Yaf-Jokutal is located on the west side of Katla.

But no need to fear! Since this volcano hasn't been much active, it won't erupt abruptly. 

Thrihnukagigur Thrihnukagigar Volcano/Image: Getty

Thrihnukagigur Thrihnukagigar Volcano

This volcano has been dormant for about 4,000 years and has no chance of erupting here. More surprisingly, it is one of the most fascinating volcanoes in the world with magma and colorful rock caves, which can be easily accessed by tourists. 

A small mining lift has been arranged in the rock chamber, which allows it to take visitors down to the 120-meter volcano or to the basement. This volcano has a much larger space in the basement. Moreover, the various colors of the volcano are popular with visitors for their artistic patterns.

Grimsvotn: Grimsvot volcano 

This volcano is called one of the most active volcanoes in Iceland. 

The volcano is located southeast of Iceland and its magma is located beneath the ice. When a volcano erupts here, it spreads in the form of black ash all around, which is very dangerous and frightening. 

One of the reasons for the terrible conditions that caused the whole world in a volcanic eruption in 1784 was the eruption of this volcano. This eruption caused livestock and crop damages that resulted in loss of one-fifth of the population in Iceland.

Hekla: Hekla volcano 

Another active volcano in Iceland; is located at the southern end of Iceland. The area of this volcano is full of fluorine and unsafe for grazing animals. 

Hekla volcano is mostly known as the "gate of hell". Because, in the Middle Ages, there have been several volcanic eruptions here. The first eruption of this volcano was in 1104 and the last eruption here was in 2000.

Katla: Katla volcano 

One of the most active and have a strong potential for glacier breaking which also makes it one of the most explosive volcanoes in Iceland. During the Holocene period, this volcano erupted numerous times and since then it has grown even stronger.

This volcano is connected to the Yaf-Jokutal (Eyjafjallajökull) volcano, and whenever the Yaf-Jokutl volcano erupts, the risk of eruption in the Katla volcano increases. This volcano lies beneath the ice and takes on a terrifying form during a volcanic eruption.


Iceland is a very diverse country. Many tourists come here to see the amazing scenery of nature combined with glaciers and volcanoes. Recently the volcanoes here have started to wake up anew. The country has been experiencing earthquakes and volcanic eruptions for weeks.

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